From ancient times to the present day, people have been successfully keeping and breeding bees. Beekeeping is by no means an easy occupation, as it might seem from the outside. This business requires a lot of time and physical effort, in addition, you need a lot of knowledge about the proper care and maintenance of bees. A novice beekeeper needs to master all the subtleties, features and methods of breeding bees. Only indifferent or lazy people, as well as people who are allergic to bee venom, can be disappointed in the business of beekeeping.
It is necessary
- - Hives,
- - bees,
- - equipment,
- - frames.
The first step is to acquire bees. The novice beekeeper buys hives and several bee colonies. If you have free framed hives, then you can purchase several swarms or packets of bees that are fairly regionalized in the area. To buy sang in the hives, it is better to invite a fairly experienced beekeeper who will be able to see and determine the quality of combs and queens, the amount of food supplies and bees. It is advisable to buy bees in spring or early summer, when there are broods of different ages in their families. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the young uterus lays eggs in circles, not missing a single cell. If the brood is replete with gaps or drone convex cells, this indicates the old age of the uterus. If there are white, mummified larvae in the cells, then this is a sign of disease.
The supply of food in the nest must be at least four kilograms. Bee colonies at this time should occupy about 5-7 frames. At the time of purchase, select families in standard hives with light, clean combs. It is necessary to transport bees at night, when the years of bees have already ended and the entrances have been closed. Try to buy bees within a radius of 2-3 km, in order to avoid the gathering of worker bees to their old place.
For a beginner beekeeper, it is better to choose 12-16 frame hives with extensions or a deck-bed for 20 frames, in the future, you can master the breeding of bees in multi-body hives, which have 3 bodies with 10 frames each. Moreover, each beekeeper must have several spare hives in order to transplant overwintered bee colonies into them. The hives after the bees are washed, disinfected and used for swarms, layering, or stored until next spring.
The frames in the hives must have precise and defined dimensions. The distance between the side strips and the walls of the hive should be 7 mm, with a larger distance, bees can build up this space with honeycombs, and if less, they can glue frames with the hive. When examining bee colonies, you need to periodically scrape off the propolis from the dividers on the frames. This will allow you to collect the valuable beekeeping product and keep the frames in good condition.
In autumn and spring, the beekeeper feeds the bees with sugar syrup if there is little food in the nests. But if there are rejected frames with honey, then you can print them out and put them in the hives of weak families from the edge of the nest. The bees will quickly begin to pick up honey, completely clearing the frames. Honey much faster than sugar syrup will allow a weak family to gain strength and prepare for honey harvest.
When feeding bees with sugar syrup, keep in mind that they also need a protein-rich diet. Therefore, the sugar syrup can be fortified with protein. You can use brewer's yeast, milk or soy flour as a top dressing. To prepare milk-sugar syrup, you need to take 1.5 kg of sugar and 800 ml of water, boil the syrup and cool. Pour in 200 g of milk.
Brewer's yeast contains trace elements, vitamins and easily digestible protein. Prepare standard sugar syrup, cool and add yeast (12 g per 1 liter of syrup), stir thoroughly.
Provide bees with fresh, clean water regularly. To do this, put a plate of sawdust in the apiary, into which you need to pour water daily. Change the sawdust and wash the plate once a week. It is necessary to put the drinker from early spring after the spring flight of the bees, otherwise they will have time to get used to another source of water and will ignore the drinker.
It is advisable to inspect bee colonies on warm, windless days. At this time, the bees are busy with work and calmly react to interference in their lives. It is better to inspect queenless colonies last, as these bees are usually very angry and can interfere with further work in the apiary. While working with bees, stings are possible, it is better to take care of the equipment in advance.