The spider web is one of the most amazing and beautiful creations created by spiders. Over the millions of years of existence on earth, these ancient inhabitants have adapted to build a strong and at the same time inconspicuous trapping net, which they need to continue their life.
A thin thread of cobweb is secreted from the spider's glands located at the back of the spider's abdomen. Scientists know seven types of spider webs that produce different types of spider webs, but one individual can only have 1 to 4 types of glands at a time.
Weaving a web is a laborious process. First, the spider draws a strong and long thread produced by a special organ with its hind legs. Then he fixes it to some stable object in such a way that it resembles the letter Y. In nature, for example, spiders attach a thread to the branches of trees or shrubs.
Then the spider builds the frame by connecting the thread-radii in the center of the frame. And only after that, it imposes a spiral of sticky web, which serves as the main trap for gape insects.
There are two types of spider webs: flat and three-dimensional. The first is the most common type with the fewest filaments, making it subtle and not too elastic. The volumetric web is distinguished by a greater entanglement of threads, thanks to which it turns out to be incredibly strong, but at the same time very noticeable to insects.
The spider's web is used by the spider not only to create a trapping net, but also as a safety rope when jumping. In addition, spiders make cocoons from cobwebs for eggs and build shelters for wintering. And the females, ready for mating, produce a thread marked with pheromones, along which the male spider easily finds its partner.
The secret of the strength and elasticity of the web, with its incredible thinness, lies in the unique composition of the thread. It contains a large amount of the amino acids alanine, which form crystalline regions that are tightly packed in folds. It is they who provide the web with such strength. And the glycine included in the composition makes it elastic.